Forum Pengukuran dan Penilaian Dalam Pendidikan

Laman Ini Adalah Untuk Tujuan Perbincangan . Pengunjung seharusnya mengemukakan pertanyaan dan menyediakan jawapan yang anda fikirkan dahulu dan "moderator" akan menyatakan "Ya" atau "Tidak"  dan kemudiannya membantu merumuskan perbincangan. Atau menghubungi  Subject Matter Expert (sudah pencen) (OUM), Pakar-Pakar IPBA Datin Dr Fowzia Osman (sudah pencen) , Dr Boon Poon Ying , Dr Lawrence Aeria dan Ms Tan Chooi Heong (sudah pencen) .

Forum: Forum Pengukuran dan Penilaian Dalam Pendidikan
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Re: Re: Penilaian Alternatif

Alternative assessment is any type of assessment in which students create a response to a question or task. (In traditional assessments, students choose a response from a given list, such as multiple-choice, true/false, or matching.)

Alternative assessments can include short-answer questions, essays, performance assessment, oral presentations, demonstrations, exhibitions, and portfolios.

Performance assessment is the direct, systematic observation of an actual student performance and the rating of that performance according to previously established performance criteria. In this type of assessment, students are asked to perform a complex performance task or to create a product. They are assessed on both the process and the end result of their work.

Performance assessments may be used for individuals or groups. They often include real-life tasks that call for higher-order thinking skills.

The National Center for Research, Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (1996) defines criteria as "guidelines, rules, characteristics, or dimensions that are used to judge the quality of student performance. Criteria indicate what we value in student responses, products, or performances."

In alternative assessments, students must clearly understand what criteria will be used to judge their performance. The problem of interpretation differences that result when performance requirements are ambiguous is compounded when students have diverse experiences based on their ethnicity, primary language, or gender. In an effort to assess higher-order cognitive skills and complex problem solving, educators must develop appropriate assessments that have no single right answer and in which students' interpretation of information or evidence is key in defending their solution.

Although student interpretations are important, educators must recognize that on the basis of cultural and environmental norms, explanations that seem diametrically opposed may be equally defensible or right. Because this quality of complexity allows performance assessments to mirror real life, educators must explicitly include the exact parameters of the responses they want to elicit in each assessment task or problem. (For example, educators should make sure students know if the writing process--rather than punctuation and grammar--is the criterion on which performance will be judged, or if a paragraph--as opposed to a few words--is the criterion response.)

A performance task is a goal-directed assessment exercise. It consists of an activity or assignment that is completed by the student and then judged by the teacher or other evaluator on the basis of specific performance criteria.

An exhibition is a public performance during which a student showcases learning and competence in particular area(s). Exhibitions typically are judged by a trained panel of adults and peers (e.g., teachers, parents, community members, employers, students).

Portfolios are collections of students' work over time. A portfolio often documents a student's best work and may include other types of process information, such as drafts of the student's work, the student's self-assessment of the work, and the parents' assessment. Portfolios may be used for evaluation of a student's abilities and improvement.

"Portfolios are systematic, purposeful, and meaningful collections of students' works in one or more subject areas.
Students of any age or grade level can learn not only to select pieces to be placed into their portfolios but can also learn to establish criteria for their selections.
Portfolio collections may include input by teachers, parents, peers, and school administrators.
In all cases, portfolios should reflect the actual day-to-day learning activities of students.
Portfolios should be ongoing so that they show the students' efforts, progress, and achievements over a period of time.
Portfolios may contain several compartments, or subfolders.

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